Potential of a γ-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase-Stable Glutathione Analogue against Amyloid-β Toxicity

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Abstract

The antioxidant properties of glutathione (GSH) and their relevance to oxidative stress induced pathological states such as Alzheimer's disease is well-established. The utility of GSH itself as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for such disorders is limited because of the former's lability to breakdown through amide cleavage by the ubiquitous enzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). In the present study, a GSH analogue, ψ-GSH, where the γ-glutamylcysteine amide linkage is replaced with a ureide linkage, was synthesized. ψ-GSH was found to be stable toward γ-GT mediated breakdown. ψ-GSH fulfilled four cardinal properties of GSH, namely, traversing across the blood brain barrier (BBB) via the GSH active uptake machinery, replacing GSH in the glyoxalase-I mediated detoxification of methylglyoxal, protecting cells against chemical oxidative insult, and finally lowering the cytotoxicity of amyloid-β peptide. These results validate ψ-GSH as a viable metabolically stable replacement for GSH and establish it as a potential preclinical candidate for treatment of oxidative stress mediated pathology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-210
Number of pages7
JournalACS Chemical Neuroscience
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 21 2012

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • GSI
  • amyloid hypothesis
  • gamma-secretase inhibitors

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