Schizophrenia is a severe brain disease that affects approximately 1% of the world's population. Extensive study into the indication of and causes of this disease has been ongoing for decades. Historical review of research into associated abnormalities and markers common in schizophrenic patients has demonstrated a correlation with potential microbial origins in the development of the disease. While infectious etiologies could be responsible for some cases of schizophrenia, no consistent use of anti-infective agents has been developed for its prevention or treatment. Elucidation of the mechanisms for infectious roots of schizophrenia may open new avenues for effective treatment.