Potential for gene-gene confounding bias in case-parental control studies

Wen Chung Lee, Yen Yi Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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PURPOSE: To show the potential for gene-gene confounding bias in case-parental control studies. METHODS: The authors quantify the magnitude of gene-gene confounding bias using simple mathematical equations. They also demonstrate the potential problems of such a bias with hypothetical (but realistic) examples. RESULTS: The degree of bias resulting from gene-gene confounding was found to be quite substantial under certain conditions (two genes are very closely linked and/or the study was performed in a recently admixed population). CONCLUSION: In this post-genomic era more and more encounters of the gene-gene confounding will be expected, if the one-gene-at-a-time approach continues to be adopted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-266
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of epidemiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2003
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Republic of China.


  • Case-Parental Control Study
  • Confounding
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Genetic Epidemiology
  • Genotype Relative Risk
  • Transmission/Disequilibrium Test

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