PURPOSE: To show the potential for gene-gene confounding bias in case-parental control studies. METHODS: The authors quantify the magnitude of gene-gene confounding bias using simple mathematical equations. They also demonstrate the potential problems of such a bias with hypothetical (but realistic) examples. RESULTS: The degree of bias resulting from gene-gene confounding was found to be quite substantial under certain conditions (two genes are very closely linked and/or the study was performed in a recently admixed population). CONCLUSION: In this post-genomic era more and more encounters of the gene-gene confounding will be expected, if the one-gene-at-a-time approach continues to be adopted.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Republic of China.
- Case-Parental Control Study
- Epidemiologic Methods
- Genetic Epidemiology
- Genotype Relative Risk
- Transmission/Disequilibrium Test