Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride responses were determined in 12 normal subjects (7 male and 5 female) fed a standard diet composed of typical American foods; the three meals were identical for each subject. A significant post-prandial rise in glucose and insulin was observed. They were closely related temporally in the early post-absorptive period. However, in the late post-absorptive phase insulin decline was generally slower than the glucose decline. A considerable difference in the glucose and insulin response was observed between males and females. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were lower in the women. Following each meal the peak plasma glucose was lower in the women, but the difference was significant only following breakfast (p < 0.02). The area under the glucose curve following breakfast was also lower (p < 0.01) in the women. In the men the maximal postprandial glucose concentration and the postprandial glucose area remained stable throughout the day, but there was an increase in peak insulin concentration and insulin area after dinner. In contrast, in the women the maximal postprandial glucose concentration and the postprandial glucose area increased throughout the day, but the peak insulin concentration and insulin area did not change. Plasma triglycerides increased with breakfast and remained elevated throughout the day. Both fasting and postprandial mean triglycerides were higher in the men, but this did not reach statistical significance. The circulating pancreatic glucagon concentration, determined in 4 subjects, was unaffected by meals and remained stable throughout the day.
- postprandial changes
- sex-related differences