The authors reviewed 50 pediatric patients (56 renal units) who underwent pyeloplasty and had serial preoperative and postoperative diuresis renogram and ultrasound studies. Of those patients that clinically improved with surgery, 73% and 91% showed improved renographic patterns in postoperative studies at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Ultrasound demonstrated more gradual improvement in grade and pelvic diameters over longer study intervals. Diuresis renography is an excellent predictor of surgical outcome within 3 months of pyeloplasty and showed change well in advance of that seen on ultrasound. Sonography is better suited to longer term evaluation of grade, pelvic diameter, and renal size.