Post-Transplant Malignancy after Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Retrospective Analysis of Incidence and Risk Factors in 884 Patients Receiving Transplants Between 1963 and 2015 at the University of Minnesota

Oscar K. Serrano, Ananta S. Bangdiwala, David M. Vock, Srinath Chinnakotla, Ty B. Dunn, Erik B. Finger, Raja Kandaswamy, Timothy L. Pruett, John S. Najarian, Arthur J. Matas, Blanche M. Chavers

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11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Post-transplant malignancy (PTM) remains a concern among pediatric kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Study Design Between 1963 and 2015, 884 pediatric (age 0 to 17 years old) patients received 1,055 PKTs at our institution. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to identify risk factors for PTM after PKT with time-to-first-PTM as a primary outcome. Secondly, the hazard of death or graft loss was calculated in patients who developed PTM. Results Median patient survival was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.7 to 47 years); 260 patients died during the study period and 47 had been diagnosed with PTM. There were 235 PTMs that occurred in 136 (15.4%) recipients at a median age of 29 years (IQR 17.8 to 37 years). The percentages of patients with PTM were 13% at 20 years post-PKT and 26% at 30 years post-PKT. Of PTM patients who died, 63.8% died of PTM. Among those who developed PTM, there was a higher hazard of death or graft loss (hazard ratio [HR] 1.62; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.38). In multivariable proportional hazards models, factors associated with PTM were increasing age at PKT (adjusted HR [AHR] 3.14; 95% CI 1.80 to 5.48 for 14 to 17 year-olds compared with children less than 3 years), having a living unrelated donor (LURD; AHR 3.25; 95% CI 1.27 to 8.35 compared with a living related donor), or implanting an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive allograft in an EBV-negative recipient (AHR 5.66; 95% CI 1.11 to 29.0). Compared with the general population, the cancer rate for PKT recipients was 6 times higher (126 vs 21 per 100,000 person-years). Conclusions Pediatric kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of PTM, which adversely affects survival. Children receiving transplants at an older age, from a LURD, or who receive an EBV-positive organ, should be monitored closely for the development of PTM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-193
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume225
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2017

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