This book examines how post-transcriptional mechanisms control endocrine function. This includes newly identified regulatory mechanisms involved in hormone biosynthesis, control of hormone receptors and the outputs of hormone mediated signal transduction. Chapters address endocrine hormones including protein peptide/peptide, steroid, and non-steroidal hormones. The impacts of these mechanisms on disease and health are covered, providing a novel update to the scientific literature. Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms play an essential role in controlling dynamic gene expression. The outcome of this regulation includes control of the amount, timing, and location of protein expression. Regulation is mediated by cis-acting RNA sequences and structures and transacting RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs. Recent advances in characterization of these regulatory factors have revealed enormous regulatory potential.