Post-procedure micro-CT analyses of coronary artery stenting in left main vessels of reanimated and perfusion-fixed human hearts

Thomas F. Valenzuela, Paul A. Iaizzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) within left main coronary arteries are high-risk procedures that require optimization of interactions between stent(s) and diseased vessels. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a widely accepted tool that enhances physicians’ ability to assess proper stent appositions during clinical procedures. The primary aim of this study was to develop complementary post-procedure imaging methodologies to better assess and interpret outcomes of left main PCI procedures, utilizing both reanimated and perfusion-fixed human hearts. Methods: PCIs were performed while obtaining OCT scans within the left main anatomies of six human hearts. Subsequently, each heart was scanned with a micro-CT scanner with optimized parameters to achieve resolutions up to 20 µm. Scans were reconstructed and imported into a DICOM segmentation software to generate computational models of implanted stents and associated coronary vessels. 2D images from OCT that were obtained during PCIs were compared to the 3D models generated from micro-CT reconstructions. In addition, the 3D models were utilized to create virtual reality scenes and enlarged 3D prints for development of “mixed reality” tools relative to bifurcation stenting within human left main coronary arteries. Results: We developed reproducible methodologies for post-implant analyses of coronary artery stenting procedures. In addition, we generated high-resolution 3D computational models, with ~ 20-micron resolutions, of PCIs performed within reanimated and perfusion-fixed heart specimens. Conclusions: Generated computational models of left main PCIs performed in isolated human hearts can be used to obtain detailed measurements that provide further clinical insights on procedural outcomes. The 3D models from these procedures are useful for generating virtual reality scenes and 3D prints for physician training and education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number27
JournalBioMedical Engineering Online
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Coronary artery disease
  • Drug-eluting stent
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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