Background: The long-term effects of the selective estrogen-receptor modulator raloxifene hydrochloride on glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown. Objective: The aim of this analysis was to compare the effects of 3-year treatment with raloxifene 60 mg/d versus placebo on glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this analysis, we included women from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial (a multicenter, double-masked trial) who were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg/d (n = 2557) or placebo (n = 2576). Baseline and 36-month fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured for all participants. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, and fibrinogen were assessed in ∼1800 participants from selected larger sites. Results: At baseline, 202 of all 5133 women (3.9%) had type 2 diabetes. Of the ∼1800 women who were assessed for HbA1c, LDL-C, TGs, apo A-I, apo B, and fibrinogen, 70 (3.9%) had type 2 diabetes at baseline. Compared with placebo, raloxifene did not significantly affect HbA1c, FPG, HDL-C, or TGs in women with or without diabetes. Raloxifene produced statistically significant reductions in TC, LDL-C, and fibrinogen both in women with diabetes (all P ≤ 0.004) and without diabetes (all P < 0.001). Raloxifene significantly increased apo A-I (P < 0.001) and reduced apo B (P < 0.001) in women without diabetes. In the raloxifene-treated group, body weight increased by a mean 0.31 kg (P < 0.001) in women without diabetes. Conclusions: In osteoporotic postmenopausal women with or without type 2 diabetes, raloxifene 60 mg/d did not affect glycemic control and had favorable effects on TC, LDL-C, and fibrinogen levels.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for the MORE trial was provided by Eli Lilly and Company (Indianapolis, Indiana). The authors wish to thank Lifen Zhou, MS, and Lang Lu, MS, for their statistical support, and Jeannette Love and Susan Orlofsky for their editorial assistance.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Glycemic control
- Raloxifene hydrochloride