Post-beamforming second-order volterra filter for pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging

Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Emad S Ebbini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


We present a new algorithm for deriving a second-order Volterra filter (SVF) capable of separating linear and quadratic components from echo signals. Images based on the quadratic components are shown to provide contrast enhancement between tissue and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) without loss in spatial resolution. It is also shown that the quadratic images preserve the low scattering regions due to their high dynamic range when compared with standard B-mode or harmonic images. A robust algorithm for deriving the filter has been developed and tested on real-time imaging data from contrast and tissue-mimicking media. Illustrative examples from image targets containing contrast agent and tissue-mimicking media are presented and discussed. Quantitative assessment of the contrast enhancement is performed on both the RF data and the envelope-detected log-compressed image data. It is shown that the quadratic images offer levels of enhancement comparable or exceeding those from harmonic filters while maintaining the visibility of low scattering regions of the image.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)987-1001
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received October 23, 2002; accepted March 21, 2003. This work is funded in part by a grant from Esaote, S.p.A., Genoa, Italy and by Grant DAMD 17-01-1-330 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command.


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