Background: Chronic pancreatitis is a painful and often debilitating disease. Total pancreatectomy with intra-portal islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) is a treatment option that allows for pain relief and preservation of beta-cell mass, thereby minimizing the complication of diabetes mellitus. Cultures of harvested islets are often positive for bacteria, possibly due to frequent procedures prior to TP-IAT, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), stenting, or other operative drainage procedures. It is unclear if these positive cultures contribute to post-operative infections. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that positive cultures of transplant solutions will not be associated with increased infection risk. Methods: We reviewed retrospectively the sterility cultures from both the pancreas preservation solution used to transport the pancreas and the final islet preparation for intra-portal infusion of patients who underwent TP-IAT between April 2006 and November 2012. Two hundred fifty-one patients underwent total, near-total, or completion pancreatectomy with IAT and had complete sterility cultures. All patients received prophylactic peri-operative antibiotics. Patients with positive pancreas preservation solution or islet sterility cultures received further antibiotics for 5-7d. Patients' medical records were reviewed for post-operative infections and causative organisms. Results: Of the 251 patients included, 151 (61%) had one or more positive bacterial cultures from the pancreas preservation solution or final islet product. Seventy-three of the 251 patients (29%) had an infectious complication. Thirty-four of the 73 (22%) patients with a post-operative infectious complication also had positive cultures. Only seven of 151 patients with positive cultures (4.7%) had an infectious complication caused by the same organism as that isolated from their pancreas or islet cell preparation. Conclusions: In autologous islet preparations, isolation solutions frequently have positive cultures, but this finding is associated infrequently with clinical infection.