Porous carbon/tin (IV) oxide monoliths as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

Zhiyong Wang, Melissa A. Fierke, Andreas Stein

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A monolithic, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous/mesoporous carbon/tin (IV) oxide (3DOM/m C/SnO2) nanocomposite was prepared and tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. A macro-/mesoporous glassy carbon (3DOM/m C) monolith was first synthesized from a triconstituent precursor, using a polymer colloidal crystal and a nonionic surfactant as the templates for macropores and mesopores, respectively. Tin (IV) oxide nanocrystals were then introduced into the mesopores of the carbon monolith via an infiltration- hydrolysis process while maintaining connections between macropores. The composite electrode exhibited superior reversible lithium capacity over a carbon/tin dioxide electrode without any designed mesostructure and also over similarly templated glassy carbon electrodes lacking the tin oxide component. The initial discharge capacity was 472 mAh g-1 and remained above 292 mAh g-1 for 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1. The formation of stable solid-electrolyte interphase layers contributed to the good cycleability of 3DOM/m C/SnO2. The structural and morphological changes of the electrode after cycling were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A658-A663
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number9
StatePublished - Aug 15 2008


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