Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) genetic diversity and occurrence of wild type and vaccine-like strains in the United States swine industry

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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genotype 2 (PRRSV-2) genetic diversity in the U.S. was assessed using a database comprising 10 years’ worth of sequence data obtained from swine production systems routine monitoring and outbreak investigations. A total of 26,831 ORF5 PRRSV-2 sequences from 34 production systems were included in this analysis. Within group mean genetic distance (i.e. mean proportion of nucleotide differences within ORF5) per year according to herd type was calculated for all PRRSV-2 sequences. The percent nucleotide difference between each sequence and the ORF5 sequences from four commercially available PRRSV-2 vaccines (Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Ingelvac PRRS ATP, Fostera PRRS, and Prevacent PRRS) within the same lineage over time was used to classify sequences in wild-type or vaccine-like. The mean ORF5 genetic distance fluctuated from 0.09 to 0.13, being generally smaller in years in which there was a relative higher frequency of dominant lineage. Vaccine-like sequences comprised about one fourth of sequences obtained through routine monitoring of PRRS. We found that lineage 5 sequences were mostly Ingelvac PRRS MLV-like. Lineage 8 sequences up to 2011 were 62.9% Ingelvac PRRS ATP-like while the remaining were wild-type viruses. From 2012 onwards, 51.9% of lineage 8 sequences were Ingelvac PRRS ATP-like, 45.0% were Fostera PRRS-like, and only 3.2% were wild-type. For lineage 1 sequences, 0.1% and 1.7% of the sequences were Prevacent PRRS-like in 2009–2018 and 2019, respectively. These results suggest that repeated introductions of vaccine-like viruses through use of modified live vaccines might decrease within-lineage viral diversity as vaccine-like strains become more prevalent. Overall, this compilation of private data from routine monitoring provides valuable information on PRRSV viral diversity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0259531
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2021 Kikuti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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