Population pharmacokinetics of unbound and total drug concentrations following intravenously administered carbamazepine in elderly and younger adult patients with epilepsy

Ghada F. Ahmed, Richard Brundage, Susan E Marino, James C Cloyd, Ilo E Leppik, Page B. Pennell, R. Eugene Ramsay, Angela K Birnbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of unbound and total plasma carbamazepine (CBZ) concentrations following simultaneous administration of intravenous and oral formulations. We tested the hypothesis that age-related alterations in physiology and patient characteristics influence CBZ disposition and protein binding. Patients (n = 113) on maintenance therapy received a 100 mg dose of a novel, intravenous, stable-labeled (SL) CBZ formulation as partial replacement of their morning CBZ dose. A two-compartment model described unbound and total SL-CBZ data. The stable-labeled intravenous dosing methodology enabled the estimation of the CBZ clearance (CL) and volumes of distribution. The CL of CBZ was dependent on race through the model equation unbound CL (L/hour) = 11.2 × (1.30)Race; where Race = 1 for Caucasian, 0 for African American. Total body weight explained 57% and 70% of the interindividual variability in the central and peripheral volumes of distribution, respectively. Age, sex, smoking, plasma albumin, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein concentrations had no effect on CL, binding or volumes of distribution. The model was evaluated via bootstrap and predictive check. Results may support race specific dosing for CBZ where an average African-American individual would receive 70% of the standard dose prescribed for the Caucasian person.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume53
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2013

Keywords

  • Adults and elderly
  • Carbamazepine
  • Epilepsy
  • Nonlinear mixed effects modeling
  • Population pharmacokinetics
  • Stable-labeled intravenous dosing

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