Population exposure to ultrafine particles: Size-resolved and real-time models for highways

Shanjiang Zhu, Julian D. Marshall, David Levinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Prior research on ultrafine particles (UFP) emphasizes that concentrations are especially high on-highway, and that time on highways contribute disproportionately to total daily exposures. This study estimates individual and population exposure to ultra-fine particles in the Minneapolis – St. Paul (Twin Cities) metropolitan area, Minnesota. Our approach combines a real-time model of on-highway size-resolved UFP concentrations (32 bins, 5.5–600 nm); individual travel patterns, derived from GPS travel trajectories collected in 144 individual vehicles (123 h at locations with UFP estimates among 624 vehicle-hours of travel); and, loop-detector data, indicating real-time traffic conditions throughout the study area. The results provide size-resolved spatial and temporal patterns of exposure to UFP among freeway users. On-highway exposures demonstrate significant variability among users, with highest concentrations during commuting peaks and near highway interchanges. Findings from this paper could inform future epidemiological studies in on-road exposure to UFP by linking personal exposures to traffic conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-336
Number of pages14
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

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© 2016


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