Familial influences were investigated for baseline sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and its response (post-training minus baseline) to a 20-week endurance exercise training program. One hundred, eighty-four participants from 85 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study (HERITAGE) were analyzed using a familial correlation model. Baseline SHBG values and the training response were adjusted for the effects of age, baseline BMI, testosterone, estradiol, and fasting insulin levels (plus baseline SHBG values for the training response) within four sex-by-generation groups prior to genetic analysis. Baseline SHBG levels were influenced by appreciable familial effects (maximum heritability h2 = 54%) with neither spouse resemblance nor sex and generation differences in the correlations. This estimate is only slightly, but not significantly, smaller than the heritability of 64% reported previously in 428 participants from 99 White families in HERITAGE. In contrast to the modest familial effects for the training response in White participants in HERITAGE (h2 = 25%), there were no evidence of familial resemblance in Blacks in the current study. Furthermore, there was heterogeneity for both baseline SHBG and the training response between Blacks and Whites in the pattern of familial aggregation. In conclusion, baseline SHBG levels are influenced by significant familial effects in both Blacks and Whites, independent of the effects of age, sex, and baseline values of BMI, testosterone, estradiol, and fasting insulin levels. Whereas modest familial effects were detected for the training response in Whites, the lack of similar effects in Blacks may be due to the smaller sample size.