Population Change in the Upper Lake States

John Fraser Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Cartographic analysis of population change at the township level in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan between 1970 and 1980 revealed a continuation of long-term trends. Coronas of urban overspill, water-oriented resort activities, and fast rates of growth in sparsely populated areas “explained” 82.2 percent, 5.9 percent, and 1.1 percent of the population increase in townships that gained ten or more persons per square mile and/or 25 percent during the decade. Larger places lost, but places of fewer than 25,000 people continued to gain population. Increased job opportunities in small towns have reduced out-migration of young people who hitherto have had to migrate to the metropolis in search of work. The retention of local young people may have rivaled in-migration as a cause of population growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-243
Number of pages23
JournalAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 1984


  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Wisconsin
  • cartographic analysis
  • coronas
  • migration
  • overspill
  • popu!ation change
  • resorts
  • retention of young people
  • retirement
  • small towns
  • water bodies


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