Polymorphisms in the RAS and cardiac function

Jop H. Van Berlo, Yigal M. Pinto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Since the discovery of the polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the consequences of this polymorphism on the activity levels of the enzyme, numerous association studies have been performed. However, these investigations do not often adhere to the most stringent criteria for such studies. The initial study reporting a positive association of the ACE polymorphism and myocardial infarction showed an increased risk of the DD genotype. This initial association was eventually refuted by a large, well conducted association study, which found a risk ratio of 1.02 after combining their own data with all published data. Although such large, well conducted association studies have not been performed in left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, the association between DD genotype and hypertrophy is more convincing with a 192% excess risk of LV hypertrophy in untreated hypertensives. The role of ACE genotype in LV growth is well established, especially in athletes. In heart failure, large studies or meta-analyses have not been performed, because most studies have selected different end-points. This hampers a proper meta-analysis of the results obtained in associations with heart failure. As most association studies do not fulfill the criteria for good association studies and use too small sample sizes, it remains important to perform a meta-analysis to add meaning to the results of such studies. Above all, it is important to obey the rules set for association studies, large sample size, small P values, report associations that make biological sense and alleles that affect the gene product in a physiologically meaningful way.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)932-943
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003


  • Heart failure
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Polymorphism
  • RAS


Dive into the research topics of 'Polymorphisms in the RAS and cardiac function'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this