We report the fabrication and extensive characterization of solid polymer electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (PEG-FETs) in which a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film containing a dissolved Li salt is used to modulate the hole conductivity of a polymer semiconductor. The large capacitance (∼10 μF/ cm2) of the solution-processed polymer electrolyte gate dielectric facilitates polymer semiconductor conductivities on the order of 103 S/cm at low gate voltages (<3 V). In PEG-FETs based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene), gate-induced hole densities were 2 × 1014 charges/cm2 with mobilities >3 cm2/ V-s. PEG-FETs fabricated with gate electrodes either aligned or intentionally nonaligned to the channel exhibited dramatically different electrical behavior when tested in vacuum or in air. Large differences in ionic diffusivity can explain the dominance of either electrostatic charging (in vacuum) or bulk electrochemical doping (in air) as the device operational mechanism. The use of a larger anion in the polymer electrolyte, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-), yielded transistors that showed clear current saturation and square law behavior in the output characteristics, which also points to electrostatic (field-effect) charging. In addition, negative transconductances were observed using the PEO/LiTFSI electrolyte for all three polymer semiconductors at gate voltages larger than -3 V. Bias stress measurements performed with PEO/LiTFSI-gated bottom contact PEG-FETs showed that polymer semiconductors can sustain high ON currents for greater than 10 min without large losses in conductance. Collectively, the results indicate that PEG-FETs may serve as useful devices for high-current/low-voltage applications and as testbeds for probing electrical transport in polymer semiconductors at high charge density.