Recent advances in the design and applications of polymer membrane-based potentiometric sensors for measuring polyionic drugs (i.e. heparin and protamine) are reviewed. The underlying principles for potentiometric polyion sensing are described. The utility of newly developed heparin and protamine sensors is demonstrated via both fundamental and practical applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support from National Institutes of Health (grant HL 38353 and GM 28882) and from Medtronic HemoTec (Parker, CO) are gratefully acknowledged.
- ion-selective electrodes (ISE)
- macromolecular binding constants
- potentiometric sensors
- protamine titration
- protease activity