Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials

Tony Low, Andrey Chaves, Joshua D. Caldwell, Anshuman Kumar, Nicholas X. Fang, Phaedon Avouris, Tony F. Heinz, Francisco Guinea, Luis Martin-Moreno, Frank Koppens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

598 Scopus citations

Abstract

In recent years, enhanced light-matter interactions through a plethora of dipole-type polaritonic excitations have been observed in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. In graphene, electrically tunable and highly confined plasmon-polaritons were predicted and observed, opening up opportunities for optoelectronics, bio-sensing and other mid-infrared applications. In hexagonal boron nitride, low-loss infrared-active phonon-polaritons exhibit hyperbolic behaviour for some frequencies, allowing for ray-like propagation exhibiting high quality factors and hyperlensing effects. In transition metal dichalcogenides, reduced screening in the 2D limit leads to optically prominent excitons with large binding energy, with these polaritonic modes having been recently observed with scanning near-field optical microscopy. Here, we review recent progress in state-of-the-art experiments, and survey the vast library of polaritonic modes in 2D materials, their optical spectral properties, figures of merit and application space. Taken together, the emerging field of 2D material polaritonics and their hybrids provide enticing avenues for manipulating light-matter interactions across the visible, infrared to terahertz spectral ranges, with new optical control beyond what can be achieved using traditional bulk materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-194
Number of pages13
JournalNature Materials
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
T.L. acknowledges financial support by DARPA grant award FA8650-16-2-7640. A.K. and N.X.F. acknowledge the financial support by AFOSR MURI (Award No. FA9550-12-1-0488). L.M.M. acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under project MAT2014-53432-C5-1-R.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

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