Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials

Tony Low, Andrey Chaves, Joshua D. Caldwell, Anshuman Kumar, Nicholas X. Fang, Phaedon Avouris, Tony F. Heinz, Francisco Guinea, Luis Martin-Moreno, Frank Koppens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

269 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In recent years, enhanced light-matter interactions through a plethora of dipole-type polaritonic excitations have been observed in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. In graphene, electrically tunable and highly confined plasmon-polaritons were predicted and observed, opening up opportunities for optoelectronics, bio-sensing and other mid-infrared applications. In hexagonal boron nitride, low-loss infrared-active phonon-polaritons exhibit hyperbolic behaviour for some frequencies, allowing for ray-like propagation exhibiting high quality factors and hyperlensing effects. In transition metal dichalcogenides, reduced screening in the 2D limit leads to optically prominent excitons with large binding energy, with these polaritonic modes having been recently observed with scanning near-field optical microscopy. Here, we review recent progress in state-of-the-art experiments, and survey the vast library of polaritonic modes in 2D materials, their optical spectral properties, figures of merit and application space. Taken together, the emerging field of 2D material polaritonics and their hybrids provide enticing avenues for manipulating light-matter interactions across the visible, infrared to terahertz spectral ranges, with new optical control beyond what can be achieved using traditional bulk materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-194
Number of pages13
JournalNature Materials
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

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polaritons
Infrared radiation
optical control
optical materials
boron nitrides
figure of merit
Near field scanning optical microscopy
Q factors
emerging
near fields
rays
graphene
Optical materials
screening
Graphite
Boron nitride
binding energy
transition metals
Space applications
excitons

Cite this

Low, T., Chaves, A., Caldwell, J. D., Kumar, A., Fang, N. X., Avouris, P., ... Koppens, F. (2017). Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials. Nature Materials, 16(2), 182-194. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4792

Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials. / Low, Tony; Chaves, Andrey; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Kumar, Anshuman; Fang, Nicholas X.; Avouris, Phaedon; Heinz, Tony F.; Guinea, Francisco; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Koppens, Frank.

In: Nature Materials, Vol. 16, No. 2, 01.02.2017, p. 182-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Low, T, Chaves, A, Caldwell, JD, Kumar, A, Fang, NX, Avouris, P, Heinz, TF, Guinea, F, Martin-Moreno, L & Koppens, F 2017, 'Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials', Nature Materials, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 182-194. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4792
Low T, Chaves A, Caldwell JD, Kumar A, Fang NX, Avouris P et al. Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials. Nature Materials. 2017 Feb 1;16(2):182-194. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4792
Low, Tony ; Chaves, Andrey ; Caldwell, Joshua D. ; Kumar, Anshuman ; Fang, Nicholas X. ; Avouris, Phaedon ; Heinz, Tony F. ; Guinea, Francisco ; Martin-Moreno, Luis ; Koppens, Frank. / Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials. In: Nature Materials. 2017 ; Vol. 16, No. 2. pp. 182-194.
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