Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a heterogeneous and aggressive solid tumor of the bone. We recently identified the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r) gene as a novel driver of osteosarcomagenesis in mice using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system. Here, we report that a CSF1R-CSF1 autocrine/paracrine signaling mechanism is constitutively activated in a subset of human OSA cases and is critical for promoting tumor growth and contributes to metastasis. We examined CSF1R and CSF1 expression in OSAs. We utilized gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies (GOF/LOF) to evaluate properties of cellular transformation, downstream signaling, and mechanisms of CSF1R-CSF1 action. Genetic perturbation of CSF1R in immortalized osteoblasts and human OSA cell lines significantly altered oncogenic properties, which were dependent on the CSF1R-CSF1 autocrine/paracrine signaling. These functional alterations were associated with changes in the known CSF1R downstream ERK effector pathway and mitotic cell cycle arrest. We evaluated the recently FDA-approved CSF1R inhibitor Pexidartinib (PLX3397) in OSA cell lines in vitro and in vivo in cell line and patient-derived xenografts. Pharmacological inhibition of CSF1R signaling recapitulated the in vitro genetic alterations. Moreover, in orthotopic OSA cell line and subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX)-injected mouse models, PLX3397 treatment significantly inhibited local OSA tumor growth and lessened metastatic burden. In summary, CSF1R is utilized by OSA cells to promote tumorigenesis and may represent a new molecular target for therapy.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
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