Plausibility of HIV-1 Infection of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells.

M. C. Herzberg, A. Vacharaksa, K. H. Gebhard, R. A. Giacaman, K. F. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

The AIDS pandemic continues. Little is understood about how HIV gains access to permissive cells across mucosal surfaces, yet such knowledge is crucial to the development of successful topical anti-HIV-1 agents and mucosal vaccines. HIV-1 rapidly internalizes and integrates into the mucosal keratinocyte genome, and integrated copies of HIV-1 persist upon cell passage. The virus does not appear to replicate, and the infection may become latent. Interactions between HIV-1 and oral keratinocytes have been modeled in the context of key environmental factors, including putative copathogens and saliva. In keratinocytes, HIV-1 internalizes within minutes; in saliva, an infectious fraction escapes inactivation and is harbored and transferable to permissive target cells for up to 48 hours. When incubated with the common oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, CCR5- oral keratinocytes signal through protease-activated receptors and Toll-like receptors to induce expression of CCR5, which increases selective uptake of infectious R5-tropic HIV-1 into oral keratinocytes and transfer to permissive cells. Hence, oral keratinocytes-like squamous keratinocytes of other tissues-may be targets for low-level HIV-1 internalization and subsequent dissemination by transfer to permissive cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalAdvances in dental research
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2011

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