Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans

F. Leighton, A. Cuevas, V. Guasch, D. D. Pérez, P. Strobel, A. San Martín, U. Urzua, M. S. Díez, R. Foncea, O. Castillo, C. Mizón, M. A. Espinoza, I. Urquiaga, J. Rozowski, A. Maiz, A. Germain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations

Abstract

An intervention study was performed to evaluate the influence of a Mediterranean diet, a high fat diet and their supplementation with red wine in moderate amounts, on biochemical, physiological, and clinical parameters related to atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. For 3 months two groups of 21 male volunteers each, received either a Mediterranean diet or a high fat diet; during the second month, red wine was added isocalorically, 240 ml/day. Participants were kept under close medical and nutritional surveillance. At days 0, 30, 60 and 90, clinical, physiological and biochemical evaluations were made. Plasma vitamin C was significantly decreased in the high fat diet group compared to the Mediterranean diet group. After wine supplementation to the Mediterranean diet, a significant 13.5% increase in plasma vitamin C was observed. Furthermore, when wine was added vitamin E decreased significantly in plasma, 15% in the high fat diet and 26% in the Mediterranean diet. Total plasma antioxidant capacity (total antioxidant reactivity) increased 28% above basal levels in the Mediterranean diet group, but not in the high fat diet group. In both groups, wine induced a marked increase in total antioxidant reactivity above basal levels, 56% and 23%, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage, detected as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in blood leukocyte DNA, was markedly increased by the high fat diet; however, it was strongly reduced, to approximately 50% basal values, after wine supplementation, both in the high fat diet and Mediterranean diet groups. Endothelial function, evaluated noninvasively as flow-mediated vascular reactivity of the brachial artery, was suppressed by the high fat diet, and was normal after wine supplementation. These effects are attributed to oxidative stress associated with a high fat diet, and to the elevated plasma antioxidant capacity associated with wine consumption and the Mediterranean diet. The results presented support the following conclusions: a high fat diet induces oxidative stress; a diet rich in fruits and vegetables enhances antioxidant defenses; wine supplementation to a high fat or a Mediterranean diet increases plasma antioxidant capacity decreases oxidative DNA damage, and normalizes endothelial function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-141
Number of pages9
JournalDrugs under Experimental and Clinical Research
Volume25
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Jun 14 1999

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