Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: Seasonal changes

Susana Solá, David L Garshelis, Joana D. Amaral, Karen V. Noyce, Pam L. Coy, Clifford J. Steer, Paul A. Iaizzo, Cecília M.P. Rodrigues

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To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 μmol/L (0.9 ± 0.2 μmol/L, mean ± SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 ± 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.4 μmol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 ± 3.2% and 22.2 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for > 67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-208
Number of pages5
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported, in part, by grant POCI/SAU-FCF/62479/2004 from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Lisbon, Portugal (to C.M.P.R.). S.S. was a recipient of a postdoctoral fellowship (SFRH/BPD/20834/2004) from FCT. We would like to thank William Gallagher and Pedro M. Borralho for laboratory assistance.


  • Bile acids
  • Black bear plasma
  • Gas chromatography
  • Taurine conjugates
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid


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