Plant-Based Dietary Patterns and Incident Diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Valerie K. Sullivan, Hyunju Kim, Laura E. Caulfield, Lyn M. Steffen, Elizabeth Selvin, Casey M. Rebholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Plant-based dietary patterns emphasize plant foods and minimize animal-derived foods. We investigated the association between plant-based dietary patterns and diabetes in a community-based U.S. sample of Black and White adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included middle-aged adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without diabetes at baseline who completed a food-frequency questionnaire (n = 11,965). We scored plant-based diet adherence according to three indices: overall, healthy, and unhealthy plant-based diet indices. Higher overall plant-based diet index (PDI) scores represent greater intakes of all plant foods and lower intakes of animal-derived foods. Higher healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) scores represent greater healthy plant food intake and lower intakes of animal-derived and unhealthy plant foods. Higher unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI) scores represent greater unhealthy plant food intake and lower intakes of animal-derived and healthy plant foods. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes (defined according to self-reported diagnosis, medication use, or elevated blood glucose) associated with each index. RESULTS Over a median follow-up of 22 years, we identified 4,208 cases of diabetes among subjects. Higher PDI scores were associated with a lower risk of diabetes (quintile 5 vs. 1 HR 0.89 [95% CI 0.80, 0.98]; Ptrend = 0.01). hPDI scores were also inversely associated with diabetes risk (quintile 5 vs. 1 HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.94]; Ptrend < 0.001). uPDI scores were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS A dietary pattern that minimizes animal-derived foods and emphasizes plant foods may reduce diabetes risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)803-809
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes care
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the American Diabetes Association.

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