Planning of integrated mobility-on-demand and urban transit networks

Pramesh Kumar, Alireza Khani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We envision a multimodal transportation system where Mobility-on-Demand (MoD) service is used to serve the first mile and last mile of transit trips. For this purpose, the current research formulates an optimization model for designing an integrated MoD and urban transit system. The proposed model is a mixed-integer non-linear programming model that captures the strategic behavior of passengers in a multimodal network through a passenger assignment model. It determines which transit routes to operate, the frequency of the operating routes, the fleet size of vehicles required in each transportation analysis zone to serve the demand, and the passenger flow on both road and transit networks. A Benders decomposition approach with several enhancements is proposed to solve the given optimization program. Computational experiments are presented for the Sioux Falls multimodal network. The results show a significant improvement in the congestion in the city center with the introduction and optimization of an integrated transportation system. The proposed design allocates more vehicles to the outskirt zones in the network (to serve the first mile and last mile of transit trips) and more frequency to the transit routes in the city center. The integrated system significantly improves the share of transit passengers and their level of service in comparison to the base optimized transit system. The sensitivity analysis of the bus and vehicle fleet shows that increasing the number of buses has more impact on improving the level of service of passengers compared to increasing the number of MoD vehicles. The article also offers managerial insights on deploying such multimodal service.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)499-521
Number of pages23
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
National Science Foundation, United States of America, award CMMI-1831140Freight Mobility Research Institute (FMRI), Tier 1 Transportation Center, U.S. Department of Transportation: award RR-K78/FAU SP#16-532 AM2, AM3, and AM4Minnesota Department of Transportation, United States of America, Contract No. 1036342 Work Order No. 08, Contract No. 1003325 Work Order No. 111, and Contract No. 1044277Metropolitan Council, United States of America Contract No. SG-2021-021Hennepin County, United States of America Contract No. UM0921

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Benders decomposition
  • First mile last mile (FMLM)
  • Mobility-on-demand (moD)
  • Multimodal passenger assignment
  • Optimal strategy
  • Transit network design problem (TNDP)


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