Phytotoxicity and ultrastructural effects of gymnopusin from the orchid Maxillaria densa on duckweed (Lemna pausicostata) frond and root tissues

N. A. Valencia-Islas, R. N. Paul, W. T. Shier, R. Mata, H. K. Abbas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Two phenanthrene derivatives, characterized as erianthridin (9,10-dihydro-2,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene) and gymnopusin (2,7-dihydroxy-3,4,9-trimethoxyphenanthrene), were isolated from an extract of the orchid Maxillaria densa, using phytotoxicity with amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) to guide fractionation. Gymnopusin and erianthridin inhibited radicle elongation of A. hypochondriacus seedlings with IC50 values of 330 and 58.2 μM, respectively, The phytoxicity of the two phenanthrene derivatives was also assessed on duckweed (Lemna pausicostata), and compared with mammalian toxicity estimated in vitro with four mammalian cell lines. On duckweed, both phenanthrene derivatives caused electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll loss and photobleaching. Ultrastructural examination of duckweed frond and root tissues treated with gymnopusin (100 μM) revealed membrane damage to the tonoplast after 12 h of exposure. Effects on membrane integrity followed a time course similar to that of electrolyte leakage. Both phenanthrene derivatives exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to all mammalian cells tested, which precludes their use as a bioherbicide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-148
Number of pages8
JournalPhytochemistry
Volume61
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 13 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This investigation was partially supported by grants from DGAPA-UNAM IN-207300 (awarded to R. Mata) and DGEP-UNAM. N.V. acknowledges the fellowship awarded by CONACyT and DGEP-UNAM to carry out graduate studies.

Copyright:
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Erianthridin
  • Gymnopusin
  • Lemna pausicostata
  • Lemnaceae
  • Mammalian cytotoxicity
  • Membrane leakage
  • Orchid
  • Phenanthrene derivatives
  • Phytotoxicity
  • Ultrastructure

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