Physiological bases of the K+ and the glutamate/GABA hypotheses of epilepsy

Mauro DiNuzzo, Silvia Mangia, Bruno Maraviglia, Federico Giove

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Epilepsy is a heterogeneous family of neurological disorders that manifest as seizures, i.e. the hypersynchronous activity of large population of neurons. About 30% of epileptic patients do not respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs. Decades of intense research have elucidated the involvement of a number of possible signaling pathways, however, at present we do not have a fundamental understanding of epileptogenesis. In this paper, we review the literature on epilepsy under a wide-angle perspective, a mandatory choice that responds to the recurrent and unanswered question about what is epiphenomenal and what is causal to the disease. While focusing on the involvement of K+ and glutamate/GABA in determining neuronal hyperexcitability, emphasis is given to astrocytic contribution to epileptogenesis, and especially to loss-of-function of astrocytic glutamine synthetase following reactive astrogliosis, a hallmark of epileptic syndromes. We finally introduce the potential involvement of abnormal glycogen synthesis induced by excess glutamate in increasing susceptibility to seizures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)995-1012
Number of pages18
JournalEpilepsy Research
Volume108
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Glutamic Acid
Epilepsy
Seizures
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase
Nervous System Diseases
Glycogen
Anticonvulsants
Neurons
Research
Population

Keywords

  • Epilepsy
  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Glycogen
  • Potassium

Cite this

Physiological bases of the K+ and the glutamate/GABA hypotheses of epilepsy. / DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico.

In: Epilepsy Research, Vol. 108, No. 6, 01.01.2014, p. 995-1012.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

DiNuzzo, Mauro ; Mangia, Silvia ; Maraviglia, Bruno ; Giove, Federico. / Physiological bases of the K+ and the glutamate/GABA hypotheses of epilepsy. In: Epilepsy Research. 2014 ; Vol. 108, No. 6. pp. 995-1012.
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