Physiologic sensors in pacemakers: How do they work and how many do we need?

Will W. Xiong, David G Benditt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This article reviews the most commonly used rate-adaptive sensor systems. Activity sensing (mainly accelerometer-based), minute ventilation, and closed-loop stimulation sensors using electrical bioimpedance are currently the primary systems. Sensor blending and sensor cross-checking are the most important modalities of sensor combination for heart-rate adaptation. Also, sensors for monitoring heart failure have been developed with the objective of identifying heart-failure exacerbations earlier. Intrathoracic impedance, intracardiac ventricular impedance, and peak endocardial acceleration have been used for hemodynamic monitoring. Future hemodynamic sensors will reliably assess crucial hemodynamic variables such as preload, afterload, left ventricular ejection fraction, and stroke volume.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-316
Number of pages14
JournalCardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
W.W.X. is supported by a Fellowship grant from the Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota .

Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Hemodynamic sensor
  • Pacemaker
  • Physical sensor
  • Rate adaptation


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