Physician Work Hours and the Gender Pay Gap — Evidence from Primary Care

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89 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND The gender gap in physician pay is often attributed in part to women working fewer hours than men, but evidence to date is limited by self-report and a lack of detail regarding clinical revenue and gender differences in practice style. METHODS Using national all-payer claims and data from electronic health records, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24.4 million primary care office visits in 2017 and performed comparisons between female and male physicians in the same practices. Our primary independent variable was physician gender; outcomes included visit revenue, visit counts, days worked, and observed visit time (interval between the initiation and the termination of a visit). We created multivariable regression models at the year, day, and visit level after adjustment for characteristics of the primary care physicians (PCPs), patients, and types of visit and for practice fixed effects. RESULTS In 2017, female PCPs generated 10.9% less revenue from office visits than their male counterparts (−$39,143.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], −53,523.0 to −24,763.4) and conducted 10.8% fewer visits (−330.5 visits; 95% CI, −406.6 to −254.3) over 2.6% fewer clinical days (−5.3 days; 95% CI, −7.7 to −3.0), after adjustment for age, academic degree, specialty, and number of sessions worked per week, yet spent 2.6% more observed time in visits that year than their male counterparts (1201.3 minutes; 95% CI, 184.7 to 2218.0). Per visit, after adjustment for PCP, patient, and visit characteristics, female PCPs generated equal revenue but spent 15.7% more time with a patient (2.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6). These results were consistent in subgroup analyses according to the gender and health status of the patients and the type and complexity of the visits. CONCLUSIONS Female PCPs generated less visit revenue than male colleagues in the same practices owing to a lower volume of visits, yet spent more time in direct patient care per visit, per day, and per year.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1349-1357
Number of pages9
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.


  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Female
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Care
  • Physicians, Primary Care/economics
  • Primary Health Care/economics
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • United States
  • Workload

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Journal Article


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