A brief examination of some issues of current interest in polymer physical chemistry is provided. Emphasis is placed on topics for which the interplay of theory and experiment has been particularly fruitful. The dominant theme is the competition between conformational entropy, which resists distortion of the average chain dimensions, and potential interactions between monomers, which can favor specific conformations or spatial arrangements of chains. Systems of interest include isolated chains, solutions, melts, mixtures, grafted layers, and copolymers. Notable features in the dynamics of polymer liquids are also identified. The article concludes with a summary and a discussion of future prospects.