Physical aspects of transgender endocrine therapy

Marshall Dahl, Jamie L. Feldman, Joshua M. Goldberg, Afshin Jaberi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The goal of transgender endocrine therapy is to change secondary sex characteristics to reduce gender dysphoria and/or facilitate gender presentation that is consistent with the felt sense of self. To maximize desired effects and minimize adverse effects, endocrine therapy must be individualized based on the patient's goals, the risk/benefit ratio of medications, the presence of other medical conditions, and consideration of social and economic issues. In this article we suggest protocols for the prescribing clinician relating to physical assessment, prescription planning, initiation of endocrine therapy, and ongoing maintenance in transgender adults. doi:10.1300/J485v09n03_06

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-134
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Transgenderism
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jun 21 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This manuscript was created for the Trans Care Project, a joint initiative of Transcend Transgender Support & Education Society and Vancouver Coastal Health’s Transgender Health Program, with funding from the Canadian Rainbow Health Coalition. The authors thank Rosemary Basson, Fionna Bayley, Trevor Corneil, Stacy Elliott, Lucretia van den Berg, and Michael van Trotsenburg for their comments on an earlier draft, and Donna Lindenberg, Olivia Ashbee, A. J. Simpson, and Rodney Hunt for research assistance.


  • Endocrine therapy
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Hormones
  • Sex reassignment
  • Sex steroids
  • Transgender


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