A phosphate modification of previously described porous zirconium oxide high-performance liquid chromatographic support particles has been developed. Modification of the surface with inorganic phosphate alleviates the irreversible adsorption of proteins on the native oxide surface and makes the surface more biocompatible. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, solid-state 31P NMR, elemental analysis, pH stability and 32P phosphate release studies that have been used to characterize physically the surface of these modified particles are reported.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Tom Weber, John Blackwell and Dr. Alon McCormick of the University of Minnesota for many helpful discussions and information and Dr. Patrick Coleman of 3M for assistance in the 32P phosphate releases tudy. They also gratefully acknowledge financial support from 3M and the Institute for Advanced Studies in Bioprocess Technology at the University of Minnesota.
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