Physical activity interventions in preventing cognitive decline and alzheimer-type dementia a systematic review

Michelle Brasure, Priyanka Desai, Heather W Davila, Torie Nelson, Collin Calvert, Eric Jutkowitz, Mary E Butler, Howard A Fink, Edward Ratner, Laura S Hemmy, John R McCarten, Terry R. Barclay, Robert L. Kane

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia is expected to increase dramatically as the population ages, creating burdens on families and health care systems. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in slowing cognitive decline and delaying the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults without diagnosed cognitive impairments. Data Sources: Several electronic databases from January 2009 to July 2017 and bibliographies of systematic reviews. Study Selection: Trials published in English that lasted 6 months or longer, enrolled adults without clinically diagnosed cognitive impairments, and compared cognitive and dementia outcomes between physical activity interventions and inactive controls. Data Extraction: Extraction by 1 reviewer and confirmed by a second; dual-reviewer assessment of risk of bias; consensus determination of strength of evidence. Data Synthesis: Of 32 eligible trials, 16 with low to moderate risk of bias compared a physical activity intervention with an inactive control. Most trials had 6-month follow-up; a few had 1- or 2-year follow-up. Evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions

about the effectiveness of aerobic training, resistance training, or tai chi for improving cognition. Low-strength evidence showed that multicomponent physical activity interventions had no effect on cognitive function. Low-strength evidence showed that a multidomain intervention comprising physical activity, diet, and cognitive training improved several cognitive outcomes. Evidence regarding effects on dementia prevention was insufficient for all physical activity interventions. Limitation: Heterogeneous interventions and cognitive test measures, small and underpowered studies, and inability to assess the clinical significance of cognitive test outcomes. Conclusion: Evidence that short-term, single-component physical activity interventions promote cognitive function and prevent cognitive decline or dementia in older adults is largely insufficient. A multidomain intervention showed a delay in cognitive decline (low-strength evidence). Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-38
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Volume168
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2 2018

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