Phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/PanAsia in Vietnam 2010-2014

Barbara Brito, Steven J. Pauszek, Michael Eschbaumer, Carolina Stenfeldt, Helena C. De Carvalho Ferreira, Le T. Vu, Nguyen T. Phuong, Bui H. Hoang, Nguyen D. Tho, Pham V. Dong, Phan Q. Minh, Ngo T. Long, Donald P. King, Nick J. Knowles, Do H. Dung, Luis L. Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in Vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within Southeast Asia. The large populations of FMDV-susceptible species in Vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. In this study, we investigated the phylogeny of FMDV O/PanAsia in Vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographical location. Phylogenetic divergence time estimation and character state reconstruction analyses suggest that movement of viruses between species differ. While inferred transmissions from cattle to buffalo and pigs and from pigs to cattle are well supported, transmission from buffalo to other species, and from pigs to buffalo may be less frequent. Geographical movements of FMDV O/PanAsia virus appears to occur in all directions within the country, with the South Central Coast and the Northeast regions playing a more important role in FMDV O/PanAsia spread. Genetic selection of variants with changes at specific sites within FMDV VP1 coding region was different depending on host groups analyzed. The overall ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes was greater in pigs compared to cattle and buffalo, whereas a higher number of individual amino acid sites under positive selection were detected in persistently infected, subclinical animals compared to viruses collected from clinically diseased animals. These results provide novel insights to understand FMDV evolution and its association with viral spread within endemic countries. These findings may support animal health organizations in their endeavor to design animal disease control strategies in response to outbreaks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number24
JournalVeterinary research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 13 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded in part by ARS-CRIS Project 1940-32000-057-00D and through an interagency agreement with the Science and Technology Directorate of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Award Number HSHQDC-12-X-0060. Additional funding was provided by the U.S. Department of State, Biosecurity Engagement Program through the USDA, ARS Office of International Research Programs and the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. We acknowledge Ethan J. Hartwig and George R. Smoliga for expert technical support. Barbara Brito, Carolina Stenfeldt, Michael Eschbaumer, and Helena C. de Carvalho Ferreira are the recipients of a Plum Island Animal Disease Center Research Participation Program fellowship, administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). All opinions expressed in this paper are the author’s and do not necessarily reflect the policies and views of the USDA-ARS FADRU, Vietnam DAH or ORAU/ORISE. The Vietnam DAH and USDA-ARS FADRU are members of the Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Alliance (GFRA). The work contributed by the WRLFMD was supported by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Project SE2943: Defra, UK), and funding provided to the EuFMD from the European Union.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).


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