Phosphomonoesters Predict Early Mortality in Porcine Hemorrhagic Shock

Jodie H. Taylor, Greg J. Beilman, Mark J. Conroy, Kristine E. Mulier, Bruce E. Hammer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Hemodynamic, laboratory, and tissue energetics were measured in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock to evaluate variables as predictors of early mortality from shock. We hypothesized that elevated phosphomonoesters would predict early mortality in hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Pigs (n = 36) were subjected to 35% hemorrhage for 90 minutes in a 1.5-T nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet. Measurements included base deficit (BD); lactate; oxygen consumption/delivery; near-infrared spectroscopy of liver, stomach, and skeletal muscle tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation; and NMR spectroscopic measurements of high-energy phosphates of liver and skeletal muscle. Variables were compared between nonsurvivors and survivors to resuscitation after 90-minute measurements. Results: Ninety-minute mortality was 25%. Muscle phosphomonoesters (PMEs) and oxygen consumption differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors at baseline. Regression analysis identified baseline muscle PME levels, baseline BD, and 30-minute BD as early predictors of mortality before resuscitation (r2 = 0.304). Conclusions: Baseline elevation in muscle PME levels predicts mortality in an animal model of severe hemorrhagic shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004


  • Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS)
  • Survival
  • Tissue energetics


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