Phonological development in Spanish immersion: A comparison of programmatic context

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Studies of lexical and syntactic development in immersion programs are numerous, yet phonological development has received much less attention. This study compares the pronunciation of English home language students in one-way and two-way Spanish immersion programs across three sound classes: voiceless stops, rhotics, and vowels. Learner productions were analyzed acoustically and compared to those of Spanish-English bilingual peers. Findings suggest that the two-way immersion context may facilitate more nativelike articulation. Amount of exposure to native speaker input, emerging adolescent identity, and decreases in instructional use of the minority language are explored as contributing factors to the greater outcomes of two-way students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-144
Number of pages33
JournalJournal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 3 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 John Benjamins Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


  • Language immersion
  • Pronunciation
  • Rhotics
  • Spanish
  • Voice onset time
  • Vowels


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