Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a valuable model for understanding the mechanism of plant embryogenesis and a tool for the mass production of plants. However, establishing SE in avocado has been complicated due to the very low efficiency of embryo induction and plant regeneration. To understand the molecular foundation of the SE induction and development in avocado, we compared embryogenic (EC) and non-embryogenic (NEC) cultures of two avocado varieties using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Although Criollo and Hass EC exhibited similarities in the proteome and metabolome profile, in general, we observed a more active phenylpropanoid pathway in EC than NEC. This pathway is associated with the tolerance of stress responses, probably through the reinforcement of the cell wall and flavonoid production. We could corroborate that particular polyphenolics compounds, including p-coumaric acid and t-ferulic acid, stimulated the production of somatic embryos in avocado. Exogen phenolic compounds were associated with the modification of the content of endogenous polyphenolic and the induction of the production of the putative auxin-a, adenosine, cellulose and 1,26-hexacosanediol-diferulate. We suggest that in EC of avocado, there is an enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism for the production of the building blocks of lignin and flavonoid compounds having a role in cell wall reinforcement for tolerating stress response. Data are available at ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD019705.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by CONACYT, grant number SAGARPA-SENASICA 259915, and FORDECYT 29239. CONACYT provided the scholarship (701571) for the Ph.D. student CAOG.
This research was funded by CONACYT, grant number SAGARPA-SENASICA 259915, and FORDECYT 29239. CONACYT provided the scholarship (701571) for the Ph.D. student CAOG. We greatly appreciate the invaluable support provided by SAGARPA-SENASICA and Mart?n R. Aluja Schuneman in this study. We thank the technical assistance offered by Luis A. Cruz-Silva, Jiovanny Arellano de los Santos, Olinda E. Vel?zquez, Betsab? Ru?z Guerra and Irene Perea-Arango. We want to thank Luis Herrera-Estrella for providing the genomic information of Avocado.
- Embryogenic cultures
- Phenolic compounds
- Plant cell wall