Phenotypic differences among and within extant populations of Chrysanthemum arcticum L. and C. a. subsp. arcticum

Yunjia Liu, Neil O. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Chrysanthemum arcticum, arctic daisy and its two subspecies (Chrysanthemum arcticum subsp. arcticum, Chrysanthemum arcticum subsp. polaré) are the only chrysanthemum species native to North America. A study on species’ variation in morphological and diagnostic traits is important to link morphological traits with previously described single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, particularly when the genomes are sequenced. The purpose of this study was to establish phenotypic differences and soil conditions among wild C. arcticum and C. a. subsp. arcticum populations, when grown in a uniform environment for two years, for potential linkages with our SNP library. Sixteen quantitative morphological traits and five qualitative morphological traits were investigated for 255 individuals from nine C. arcticum populations and 326 individuals from 21 C. a. subsp. arcticum populations. Results: In long-day controlled environment, C. arcticum flowering rate was 0% in Year 1, increased to 2.7% in Year 2, while C. a. subsp. arcticum flowering rate was 98.5% in Year 2. Two distinct clusters, distributed by taxonomic classification, were detected by Principal component analysis (PCoA) for 551 individuals from C. arcticum and C. a. subsp. arcticum. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis indicated a positive and significant correlation between plant height, flower fresh and dry weights. Flower fresh weights were correlated with Δflower weight, while inflorescence length had showed a negative correlation with leaf number. Soil samples had high Na levels along with heavy metals. Thus, the species are salt-tolerant. Conclusion: A high level of salt tolerance (Na) is tolerated by these maritime species which is a unique trait in Chrysanthemum. A new diagnostic trait of inflorescence length was discovered to distinguish among C. arcticum and C. a. subsp. arcticum. Significant flowering differences occurred among the species C. arcticum and C. a. subsp. arcticum under same photoperiodic environment, including flowering rates and visible bud date. This study on the species’ variation in morphological and diagnostic traits is of importance to link morphological traits with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number517
JournalBMC plant biology
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Appreciation is extended to the following personnel who aided Neil Anderson in his 2017-2018 plant expeditions via boat throughout the Aleutian Islands (the Kodiak Archipelago: Kodiak Island, Long Island, Near Island, Pine Island; Adak Island; Kiska Island; Attu Island) and mainland Alaska (Anchor Point, Anchorage, Homer, Kenai, Ninilchik, Palmer, Seward, Valdez): Stacy Studebaker (botanist, Kodiak Island, AK); Dr. Suzie Golodoff (Aleutian Island taxonomist, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska, AK); Rachel Nummer and Cheryl Heyman (plant explorations, Kodiak Island, AK); Billy Choate (Captain), Alford Huff (substitute Captain), Zandra (cook) and Mike (engineer/deckhand) aboard the 22 m M/V Pŭk-ŭk boat (Alaska Marine Expeditions, Homer, AK; http://www.pukuk.com/index.html); John Puschock and Neil Hayward (Zugenruhe Birding Tours, http://www.zbirdtours.com/); Pamela Russell (Div. of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska State Parks, Soldotna, AK; special parks use permit for collecting on Kodiak Island in Buskin River SWS, Ft. Abercrombie State Historical Park, Pasagshak SRA; Anchor River SRA; Ninilchik SRA; Deep Creek SRA; Clam Gulch SRA; Captain Cook SRA; Matanuska Glacier SRA; Squirrel Creek SRS; Tonsina SRS; Worthington Glacier SRS); Susan Alexander (Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Service; Special Use Permit #17-302), Jeff Williams for the Aleutian Islands (U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Service; Special Use Permit #74500-17-018), Hansel Klausner and Lecita Monzon (Kodiak Island Refuge, U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Service; Special Use Permit #KOD.17.60006), and Todd Eskelin (Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fisheries and Wildlife Service). Special thanks are also extended to team members in the Anderson lab who helped with rooting/growing the plants, leaf collection, DNA extraction, and statistical analyses: Michele Schermann, Kaylie Niedzwiecki, Allison Graper, and Betty Ziskovsky.

Funding Information:
Funding for this research was provided, in part, by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station and the N. Anderson Flower Breeding & Genetics Foundation, to fund the 50% Research Assistantship for Yunjia Liu’s M.S. thesis and cover supply costs for this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Chrysanthemum
  • Diagnostic traits
  • Plant morphology
  • Population structure
  • Principal component analysis (PCoA)
  • Salt tolerance

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