Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589. K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of bio-based phenols for chemical industry.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in partial by the Office of Research and Department of Biological Systems Engineering at Washington State University .
Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Activated carbon
- Catalytic microwave pyrolysis