FMRF-NH2-like immunoreactivity was localized in the pancreatic polypeptide containing cells of the rat islet. FMRF-NH2 was investigated with regard to its effect on insulin, somatostatin and glucagon secretion from the isolated perfused rat pancreas. FMRF-NH2 (1 μM) significantly inhibited glucose stimulated (300 mg/dl) insulin release (p<0.005) and somatostatin release (p<0.01) from the isolated perfused pancreas. FMRF-NH2 (1 and 10 μM) was without effect on glucagon secretion, either in low glucose (50 mg/dl), high glucose (300 mg/dl), or during arginine stimulation (5 mM). These findings indicate that these FMRF-NH2 antisera recognize a substance in the pancreatic polypeptide cells of the islet which may be capable of modulating islet β and D cell activity.