Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major toxicity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We hypothesized that a GVHD prophylaxis regimen of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), tacrolimus (Tac), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) would be associated with incidences of acute and chronic GVHD in patients receiving a matched or single antigen mismatched HCT. This Phase II study was conducted at the University of Minnesota using a myeloablative regimen of either total body irradiation (TBI) at a total dose of 1320 cGy, administered in 165-cGy fractions, twice daily from day -4 to day -1, or busulfan (Bu) 3.2 mg/kg daily (cumulative area under the curve, 19,000 to 21,000 μmol/min/L) plus fludarabine (Flu) 40 mg/m2 once daily on days -5 to -2, followed by a GVHD prophylaxis regimen of PTCy 50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4, Tac, and MMF beginning on day +5. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD necessitating systemic immunosuppression (IST) at 1 year post-transplantation. Between March 2018 and May 2022, we enrolled 125 pediatric and adult patients, with a median follow-up of 813 days. The incidence of chronic GVHD necessitating systemic IST at 1 year was 5.5%. The rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 17.1%, and that of grade III-IV acute GVHD was 5.5%. Two-year overall survival was 73.7%, and 2-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was 52.2%. The 2-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 10.2%, and the rate of relapse was 39.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in survival outcomes between recipients of matched donor transplants versus recipients of 7/8 matched donor transplants. Our data show that myeloablative HCT with PTCy/Tac/MMF results in an extremely low incidence of severe acute and chronic GVHD in well-matched allogeneic HCT.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial disclosure: This research was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant P30 CA77598 utilizing the Biostatistics Core of the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Award UL1TR002494 .
© 2023 The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Clinical Trial, Phase II
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural