Phase 1 Trial of High-Dose Exogenous Testosterone in Patients with Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Michael J. Morris, Daisy Huang, William K. Kelly, Susan F. Slovin, Ryan D. Stephenson, Caitlin Eicher, Anthony Delacruz, Tracy Curley, Lawrence H. Schwartz, Howard I. Scher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Growth of selected castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines and animal models can be repressed by reexposure to androgens. Low doses of androgens, however, can stimulate tumor growth. Objective: We performed a phase 1 clinical trial to determine the safety of high-dose exogenous testosterone in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRMPC). Design, setting, and participants: Patients with progressive CRMPC who had been castrate for at least 1 yr received three times the standard replacement dose of transdermal testosterone. Intervention: Cohorts of 3-6 patients received testosterone for 1 wk, 1 mo, or until disease progression. Measurements: Toxicities, androgen levels, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays, computed tomography (CT) scans, bone scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and metastatic tumor biopsy androgen receptor levels were assessed. Results and limitations: Twelve patients were treated-three in cohorts 1 and 2 and six in cohort 3. No pain flares were noted. One patient came off study because of epidural disease, which was treated with radiation. Average testosterone levels were within normal limits, although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels on average were supraphysiologic in cohort 3. One patient achieved a PSA decline of >50% from baseline. No objective responses were seen. For cohort 3, median time on treatment was 84 d (range: 23-247 d). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that patients with CRMPC can be safely treated in clinical trials using high-dose exogenous testosterone. Patients did not, on average, achieve sustained supraphysiologic serum testosterone levels. Future studies should employ strategies to maximize testosterone serum levels, use contemporary methods of identifying patients with androgen receptor overexpression, and utilize PSA Working Group II Consensus Criteria clinical trial end points. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00006044.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-244
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Urology
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2009

Keywords

  • Exogenous testosterone
  • Phase 1 trials
  • Prostate cancer

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Phase 1 Trial of High-Dose Exogenous Testosterone in Patients with Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Morris, M. J., Huang, D., Kelly, W. K., Slovin, S. F., Stephenson, R. D., Eicher, C., Delacruz, A., Curley, T., Schwartz, L. H., & Scher, H. I. (2009). Phase 1 Trial of High-Dose Exogenous Testosterone in Patients with Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer. European Urology, 56(2), 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2009.03.073