Pharmacy student perceptions of the entrustable professional activities

Amy L. Pittenger, Brenda L. Gleason, Stuart T. Haines, Stephen Neely, Melissa S. Medina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions and self-reported preparedness to perform the 15 core entrustable professional activities (EPA) established by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy for new pharmacy graduates. Methods. A random sample of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students from all four professional years at four universities were asked to indicate whether each of the 15 EPA statements was relevant to the practice of pharmacy and whether pharmacists were expected to perform the activity in multiple practice settings. Participants rated their self-perceived level of entrustability for each activity and indicated which three EPAs they felt most and least prepared to perform. Results. Four hundred twenty-three usable responses were received. The majority ($85%) of students rated all of the EPA statements as relevant and $67% indicated that pharmacists were expected to perform them in multiple practice settings with a high percentage of agreement. Students’ perceived need for supervision decreased from the P1 to P4 years. These data suggest that students’ confidence to perform some activities grew as they gained experience and knowledge. However, in some cases, the self-perceived need for supervision regressed as students better understood the complexity of the activity. The EPA statements students felt most and least prepared to perform varied by year in the program. Conclusion. The core EPA statements were consistently rated by pharmacy students as relevant to pharmacy practice and as an expectation in multiple settings. Students perceived that they require less supervision when performing EPA activities as they progressed through the curriculum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7274
Pages (from-to)1974-1982
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2019


  • Entrustable professional activities
  • Outcomes
  • Pharmacy students


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