Pharmacologic Therapy for New York Heart Association Class IV Heart Failure

Marco A. Caccamo, Peter M Eckman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


As the incidence of heart failure increases, the number of patients with advanced heart failure is anticipated to grow. Substantial progress in the treatment of heart failure has been achieved over the past few decades. Several classes of medications have been studied and found effective, including beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, vasodilators, digoxin, and inotropes. The evidence base for the use of these medications in the treatment of patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure is reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-219
Number of pages7
JournalCongestive Heart Failure
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Pharmacologic Therapy for New York Heart Association Class IV Heart Failure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this