Objective: A porcine model was used to study diastolic dysfunction in hibernating myocardium (HM) and recovery with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: HM was induced in Yorkshire–Landrace juvenile swine (n = 30) by placing a c-constrictor on left anterior descending artery causing chronic myocardial ischemia without infarction. At 12 weeks, animals developed the HM phenotype and were either killed humanely (HIB group; n = 11) or revascularized with CABG and allowed 4 weeks of recovery (HIB+CABG group; n = 19). Control pigs were matched for weight, age, and sex to the HIB group. Before the animals were killed humanely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done at rest and during a low-dose dobutamine infusion. Tissue was obtained for histologic and proinflammatory biomarker analyses. Results: Diastolic peak filling rate was lower in HIB compared with control (5.4 ± 0.7 vs 6.7 ± 1.4 respectively, P = .002), with near recovery with CABG (6.3 ± 0.8, P = .06). Cardiac MRI confirmed preserved global systolic function in all groups. Histology confirmed there was no transmural infarction but showed interstitial fibrosis in the endomysium in both the HIB and HIB+CABG groups compared with normal myocardium. Alpha-smooth muscle actin stain identified increased myofibroblasts in HM that were less apparent post-CABG. Cytokine and proteomic studies in HM showed decreased peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1-α) expression but increased expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). Following CABG, PGC1-α and NFκB expression returned to control whereas granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon gamma remained increased. Conclusions: In porcine model of HM, increased NFκB expression, enhanced myofibroblasts, and collagen deposition along with decreased PGC1-α expression were observed, all of which tended toward normal with CABG. Estimates of impaired relaxation with MRI within HM during increased workload persisted despite CABG, suggesting a need for adjuvant therapies during revascularization.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the VA Merit Review #I01 BX000760 (R.F.K.) and #I01 BX004146 (T.A.B.) from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development. We also gratefully acknowledge the support of the University of Minnesota Lillehei Heart Institute.
- cardiac MRI
- diastolic dysfunction
- hibernating myocardium
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't