Generalizing the notion of a vexillary permutation, we introduce a filtration of S ∞ by the number of terms in the Stanley symmetric function, with the kth filtration level called the k-vexillary permutations. We show that for each k, the k-vexillary permutations are characterized by avoiding a finite set of patterns. A key step is the construction of a Specht series, in the sense of James and Peel, for the Specht module associated with the diagram of a permutation. As a corollary, we prove a conjecture of Liu on diagram varieties for certain classes of permutation diagrams. We apply similar techniques to characterize multiplicity-free Stanley symmetric functions, as well as permutations whose diagram is equivalent to a forest in the sense of Liu.
- Edelman-Greene correspondence
- Pattern avoidance
- Specht modules
- Stanley symmetric functions