Peripheral Innervation in Children with Global Developmental Delay

Frank J. Symons, Raymond C. Tervo, Chantel C. Barney, John Damerow, Mona Selim, Brian McAdams, Shawn Foster, Gwen Wendelschafer Crabb, William Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The relation between somatosensory mechanisms and self-injury among children with neurologic impairments associated with developmental delay is not well understood. We evaluated the feasibility of procuring skin biopsies to examine epidermal nerve fiber density and reported self-injury. Following informed parental consent, epidermal skin biopsies were obtained from a distal leg site with no pre-existing skin damage from 11 children with global developmental delay (55% male; mean age = 36.8 months, 17-63 months). Visual microscopic examination and quantitative analyses showed extremely high epidermal nerve fiber density values for some children. Children with reported self-injury (5/11) had significantly (P <.02) greater density values (138.8, standard deviation = 45.5) than children without self-injury (80.5, standard deviation = 17.5). Results from this novel immunohistologic analysis of skin in very young children with neurodevelopmental delays suggest it may be a useful tool to study peripheral innervation as a possible sensory risk factor for self-injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1722-1727
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Child Neurology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2015.


  • developmental delay
  • peripheral innervation
  • risk
  • self-injury
  • sensory


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