Performance of rigid porous stratification manifolds with interpretation for off-design operation

Shuping Wang, Jane H. Davidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Thermal stratification of solar water storage tanks improves collector efficiency and provides higher quality energy to the user. A crucial aspect of maintaining stratification is preventing mixing in the tank, particularly during solar charging and hot water draws. An effective and simple approach to flow control is an internal stratification manifold. In this paper, the performance of the rigid porous manifold, which consists of a series of vertical hydraulic resistance elements placed within a perforated tube, is considered for charging operation. A 1D model of the governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations is used to illustrate the procedure for designing a manifold and to explore its performance over a broad range of operating conditions expected in solar water storage tanks. A manifold performance indicator (MPI) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the manifold relative to an inlet pipe positioned at the top of the tank. The rigid porous manifold improves the stratification in the tank over a wide range of operating conditions unless the inlet flow rate is significantly reduced from the design point.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number021021
JournalJournal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2014


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